The Bronze Age World

One of my current long term projects: A highly detailed map showing the end of the beginning, the great civilizations of the late Bronze Age Middle East. While I am still toying with the idea to make a Dawn of Civilization: 3000 BCE map one day, for now this map is envisioned as a general Bronze Age map. Despite depicting the political situation in about 1250 BCE, shortly before the beginning late Bronze Age collapse, I’ve also included many appropriately marked abandoned earlier sites, river courses and lakes from the early and middle Bronze Age periods. 

bronze age map
The Middle East during the late Bronze Age

Features:

  • The great civilizations of the Fertile Crescent and its neighbors: Mycenean Greece, New Kingdom Egypt, The Hittite Empire, Mitanni and Assyria, Babylonia and Elam
  • An detailed ancillary map showing wider Bronze Age Eurasia,
  • Countries and Nomes,
  • Hundreds of settlements classified for their political significance,
  • Ports and fortresses,
  • Oases and mountains,
  • Land and sea routes,
  • Important mines and quarries,
  • The royal Egyptian necropoleis from all eras,
  • A selection of monumental reliefs and inscriptions, differentiated for the various phases of the Bronze Age,  visualize the activities of various cultures and their spatial limitations,
  • Modified geodata to reflect the ancient topography, as well as earlier lakes and river courses,

  • Legend in English and German,
  • DIN A0 (118,9 x 84,1 cm),
  • Scale 1:3.300.000.
Hittite Anatolia
The Hittite heartland
bronze age nile delta
Lower Egypt
bronze age babylonia
Kassite Babylonia

Commentary

Over the years I've written a number of blogposts chronicling the development of this map:

 

Development and Evolution of the Project

 

Specific areas: 

Names: When labeling the map, we had to carefully balance conflicting expectations. One one side, there was the desire for authenticity and the wish that it should be easily readable for people from all over the world. These two prerequisites both favored the use of original names. However, “easily readable for everyone” also means using the most common names for the places depicted, which are often names from much later eras, such as the Greco-Roman epoch. A well-known example is the ancient capital Memphis, called Jnbw-ḥḏ in ancient Egyptian. We thus had to find a partially individual compromise.

The linear nature of Upper Egypt made it easy to specify several names for well known places without cluttering the map. On Crete, the place names from Linear B tablets are already very close to their Classical forms. In crowded Canaan, we used either the Akkadian (1) term form the Amarna archives, or simply the most common name, especially since in this area there is very high name continuity. For example, Meggido is called Maggigu or Maggida in Akkadian and Meketi (Mktj) in hieroglyphic texts. For the regions and some of the cities depicted on the ancillary map, the color indicates the source of the name.

The map includes several hundred names and terms taken from ancient Egyptian sources (2). Usually, transcriptions from hieroglyphic writings include only letters for consonants or half-vowels, just as the original texts. Thus, it is impossible to read them out loud without knowledge of the language. On our map, we used the Egyptological pronunciation (3) for increased user-friendliness. However, in most cases, this standard is not identical to the ancient pronunciation of a given word. The legend includes a list with translations and the proper transcriptions for the most important labels.

 

Settlements: The depicted settlements are classified according to their political significance. Imperial capitals are the seats of rulers and administrative centers of the great Empires, whereas provincial capitals belong to their larger subdivisions. This category includes the seat of the viceroy of Kush [15], Aleppo and Carchemish (as centers of Hittite viceregal kingdoms) and Apasa, capital of the Arzawa lands (4). First order centers are the capitals of further subdivisions, such as the city districts of Egypt, small city states, or similar polities, second order centers are local administrative centers and similar places.

Beyond a first approximation, their distribution does not say much about regional population density or economic strength. The town of Tanaakh in Canaan, for example, has only scarcely produced archaeological remains from this period [5], meaning that it seems to have been a rather unimportant place, while still continuing to function as an independent city state with its own complex bureaucracy.

 

Routes: In the Bronze Age, true roads already existed at a few places. On the map they are shown as full lines. The oldest example is the paved Old Kingdom quarry road between Widan el-Farrasand Qasr el-Sagha on the ancient shore of lake Qarun [11]. It was no longer used during the New Kingdom, but its remains are still traceable over many kilometers through the desert, even today. We also see the beginning of a true road network featuring bridges and similar auxiliary infrastructure in the Mycenaean world.

Of greatest importance for New Kingdom Egypt was the road called the “Ways of Horus" (5), a strategic route between Egypt and Canaan, well equipped with forts and watering points to allow both single couriers as well as the entire army of the Pharaoh a swift and secure passage across the dry Sinai desert.

 

As the Sahara was becoming an even drier place in the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE, the oases of the region had already lost most of their former importance (compared to the Middle and Old Kingdom periods, when they were still step stones for trade with southern countries such as Yam). Consequently, the routes leading to and from them were classified appropriately. Only after the introduction of the camel and new irrigation methods during Persian times would they flourish once again and reach their peak prosperity in the Greco-Roman era.

 

Traces of New Kingdom activity have been found in the pharaonic port of Mersa Gawasis/Saww [3], but its main phase of use clearly fell within the Middle Kingdom period. Since expeditions to Punt were sent out until the reign of Ramesses III., the main port used used during that time is probably still awaiting to be found.

 

Borders: Only in exceptional cases can the borders of city kingdoms and similarly sized polities be reconstructed with some certainty. This usually only happens when a palace archive is found, as in Pylos or Ugarit. In some other cases, diplomatic letters from similar but distant archives allow some reasonable guesses. As a consequence, city kingdom borders are not continuously included over the entirety of the map.

 

Nomes of Egypt [8, 10, 13]: The old nomes originating in the Old Kingdom had ceded their function as administrative units to the newer, smaller, so-called city districts, which were focused around larger settlements instead of cult centers. These districts would later develop into the Nomoi of Greco-Roman Egypt. They were lead by an official called haty-a, which is usually translated as mayor. There could be also mayors in strategic settlements without exercising control of the surrounding countryside. On the map, these are shown as second order centers.

However, the old nomes still kept their importance in a religious context and also for the practical purpose of topographically subdividing the country.

 

Faiyum [6, 7]: The Faiyum is large basin without any drainage to the sea, west of the Nile valley. It is supplied with water by a sidearm of the Nile, the Bahr Yussef, which also allows some back-flow after Nile floods. Consequently, a large, seasonally fluctuating lake and extensive swamps had formed in the basin, which made the early Faiyum a good hunting ground (but an only sparsely inhabited one).

In the Middle Kingdom period, during the reign of Senuseret (Sesostris) II., the Egyptian state for the first time invested in large scale reclamation and infrastructure projects. Their exact scope and aims can currently not be determined with any certainty. Senuseret II. build his pyramid at el-Lahun near the entrance to the Faiyum, just as Amenemhet III. did in Hawara little time later. The distribution of Middle Kingdom archaeological sites, which kept their importance during the New Kingdom, allows us to conclude that the lake level at this time was very high, about 18 meters above sea level.

Only in Ptolemaic times did a strict regulation of water flow into the Faiyum basin make it possible to largely drain and transform it into a highly productive agricultural zone. During the Roman era, the remaining lake Qarun achieved its modern level of about 45 meters below sea level.

 

Shasu and Apiru [5]: Both are generic terms for people following a certain way of life, not well-defined ethnic groups. The name Shasu is best translated as Bedouins. It is derived from the Egyptian word šꜢs (shas), meaning to wander around or move through. In the sources, Shasu are nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes living in the steppes and deserts at the fringe of the Levant and beyond.

Apiru, or Akkadian Hapiru, are stateless people, practically part of the civilized world, but living outside the highly bureaucratic societies of the Bronze Age Middle East. The term can be translated as robbers or troublemakers. Apiru recruited themselves from all kinds of adventurers, refugees and other outcasts and usually appeared in small groups as migrant workers or mercenaries. They could some times occur in great numbers and become a security risk not to be underestimated. United, they could threaten entire city kingdoms.

 

Libyans [2]: During the New Kingdom, the terms Tjemehu and Tjehenu for northern and southern Libyan groups were already used very broadly. They could designate the country, as well as the people within it.

The Libu and Meshwesh were new groups increasingly appearing in our sources since the 13th century BCE. They most likely originated in fertile Cyrenaica and migrated along the coast searching for new land in the sparsely developed western fringes of the delta. Towards the end of the century, they also begun to infiltrate the Egyptian sphere via the western oases.

 

Canaan [14]: During the 18th dynasty, the Egyptian territories in the Levant were organized as a loose compound of client states. This later changed in the Ramesside period, when an increasing number of cities were placed under direct control of Egyptian governors. The first phase of this development under Ramesses II. is depicted on our map. Until the end of our time frame Ashkalon, Gezer and Damascus(?) were added to the list during the reign Merneptah, Yuzra (Tell Jememeh) (at the latest under Seti II.) and finally Lachish, Gath (Gimtu, Tell es-Safi) and Tell es-Sa'idiyeh were added when Ramesses III. ruled Egypt.

 

 

Footnotes:

 

(1) The lingua franca of the Bronze Age Middle East

(2) Usually, the used variant of the names was taken from [9].

(3) As described in [1]

(4) At this time a compound of Mira, Arzawa Minor, Wilusa, Seha River Land, and Haballa [4]

(5) In Egyptian texts both, he singular wꜢt ḥr, and more often, the plural wꜢwt ḥr are used. Since the plural is almost exclusively used in English literature it is also listed on the map [12].

 

References:

[1] H. Altenmüller, Einführung in die Hieroglyphenschrift, H. Buske (20109.

[2] K. A. Bard (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Routledge Chapman & Hall (1999)

[3] K. A. Bard, R. Fattovich, The Middle Kingdom Red Sea Harbor at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis, JARCE 47 (2011), 105-129.

[4] T. Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford University Press (2006)

[5] T. Bryce, The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire, Routledge Chapman & Hall (2009).

[6] P. Davoli, The Archaeology of the Fayum, in C. Riggs (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt, Oxford University Press (2012)

[7] G. Garbrecht, H. Jaritz, Neue Ergebnisse zu altägyptischen Wasserbauten im Fayum, in: Antike Welt: Band. 23,4 (1992), 238–254.

[8] F. Gomaà, R. Müller-Wollermann, W. Schenkel, Mittelägypten zwischen Samalut und dem Gabal Abu Sir, L. Reichert (1991)

[9] R. Hannig: Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch: (2800 - 950 v. Chr.), von Zabern (2006)

                         Großes Handwörterbuch Deutsch - Ägyptisch, von Zabern (2014)

[10] W. Helck, Die altägyptischen Gaue, L. Reichert (1974).

[11] J.A. Harrell, P. Storemyr, Ancient Egyptian quarries-an illustrated overview, in N. Abu-Jaber, E. G. Bloxam, P. Degryse, T. Heldal, QuarryScapes: ancient stone quarry landscapes in the Eastern Mediterranean, Geological Survey of Norway Special Publication 12 (2009), 7–50.

[12] J. K. Hoffmeier, S. O. Moshier, “A highway out of Egypt”: The main road from Egypt to Canaan, in Desert Road Archaeology in F. Förster, H. Riemer (eds.), Ancient Egypt and Beyond, Heinrich-Barth-Inst. (2014)

[13] A. B. Lloyd, A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World, John Wiley & Sons (2014).

[14] I. Singer, Merneptah's Campaign to Canaan and the Egyptian Occupation of the Southern CoastalPlain of Palestine in the Ramesside Period, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 269 (1988), 1-10.

[15] L. Török, The Kingdom of Kush - Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization, Handbuch der Orientalistik Abt.2 Bd. 31 (1999).

Bibliography

The literature consulted by me so far when making the Bronze Age World  map. For better readability, the list of sources is separated by topic into sections. It begins with a list of more general topics, then continues with geographical subdivisions going clockwise around the map.

General

  • BRYCE 2009: T. Bryce, The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire, Routledge (2009).
  • BUBNEZER 2007: O. Bubenzer, A. Bolten, F. Darius (Eds.), Atlas of Cultural and Environmental Change in Arid Africa, Heinrich-Barth-Institut (2007).
  • CLINE 2014: E. H. Cline, 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed, Turning Points in Ancient History, Princeton Univers. Press, Revised edition (2015). 
  • HROUDA 1991: B. Hrouda (ed.), Der alte Orient. Geschichte und Kultur des alten Vorderasiens, C. Bertelsmann (1991).
  • PEDERSEN 2012: O. Pedersén, Ancient Near East on Google Earth: Problems, Preliminary results, and Prospects, in R. Matthews, J. Curtis, (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Harrassowitz Verlag (2012), 385-393. https://www.lingfil.uu.se/research/assyriology/earth/
  • PLEIADES: B. Turner, T. Elliott et. Al., Pleiades - A community-built gazetteer and graph of ancient places, pleiades.stoa.org
  • ROHDE 2016: D. Rohde, Dorothea, M. Sommer, Wirtschaft, Geschichte in Quellen - Antike, wbg Academic (2016).
  • TAVO, Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag (1975-1993).
  • WITTKE 2007: Anne-Maria Wittke, Eckart Olshausen, Richard Szydlak, Der neue Pauly. Historischer Atlas der antiken Welt, Metzler (2007). 

 

Geodata

 

 Hittite Empire, Asia Minor

  • ALBW 2001: Archäologisches Landesmuseum Baden-Württemberg, Troia. Traum und Wirklichkeit, Theiss, Stuttgart (2001).
  • ALPARSLAN 2015: M. Alparslan, M. Doğan-Alparslan, The Hittites and their Geography: Problems of Hittite Historical Geography, European Journal of Archaeology 18 (1) 2015, 90–110.
  • BARJAMOVIC 2011: G. Barjamovic, A Historical Geography of Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Colony Period,  Museum Tusculanum Press (2011). 
  • BLASWEILER 2018: J. Blasweiler, Paršuhanta, Purušhanda, Bīt-Purūtaš, Parzuta, Parnašša, 1 Anatolia in the Bronze Age Vol. 2 (2018), 1-23. 
  • BRYCE 2006: T. Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford University Press (2006).
  • CHRZANOWSKA 2020: A. Godawa-Chrzanowska, Nachbarn des Oberen Landes - Politische Geographie der Grenzregionen des Reiches Hatti, Dissertation, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (2020).
  • COLLINS 2007: B. J. Collins, The Hittites and Their World, Archaeology and Biblical Studies No. 7, SBL Press (2007).
  • DINÇOL 2000: Ali M. Dinçol, Y. Yarkar, B. Dinçol, A. Taffet, The Borders of the Appanage Kingdom of Tarhuntašša - A Geographical and Archaeological Assessment, Anatolica 26 (2000), 1-29. 
  • ENGIN 2014: A. Engin, A Localisation Proposal for Oylum Höyük: Ulisum / Ullis / Illis, in Armizzi - Engin Özgen'e Armağan / Studies Honour of Engin Özgen, Ankara (2014), 129-149.
  • ERB-SATULLO 2017: N. L. Erb-Satullo, B. J.J. Gilmour, N. Khakhutaishvili, Copper production landscapes of the South Caucasus, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 47 (2017), 109–126.
  • FORLANINI 2007: M. Forlanini, Happurija, eine Hauptstadt von Arzawa?, in Belkıs Dinçol ve Ali Dinçol’a Armağan VITA Festschrift in Honor of Belkıs Dinçol and Ali Dinçol, Yayınları(2007), 285-298.
  • FORLANINI 2009: M. Forlanini, On the Middle Kizilirmak II, Studia Asiana 5 (2009), 39-69.
  • FORLANINI 2012: M. Forlanini, The Historical Geography of Western Anatolia in the Late Bronze Age, still an open question, Orientalia Vol. 81 Fasc.2 (2012), 133-140.
  • FORLANINI 2014: M. Forlanini, The Survival of Dynastic Traditions of Bronze Age Anatolia During the Transition to the Iron Age: the Case of Ḫalpa-šulubi and the Historical Connections Between Išuwa and Milidia, in S. Gaspa, A. Greco, D. Morandi Bonacossi, S. Ponchia, R. Rollinger(eds.), From Source to History Studies on Ancient Near Eastern Worlds and Beyond,  Alter Orient und Altes Testament Band 412, Ugarit Verlag (2014), 251-271.  
  • GANDER 2015: M. Gander, Asia, Ionia, Maeonia und Luwiya? Bemerkungen zu den neuen Toponymen aus Kom el-Hettan (Theben-West) mit Exkursen zu Westkleinasien in der Spätbronzezeit, Klio 97 2 (2015), 443–502.
  • GLATZ 2005: C. Glatz and R. Matthews, Anthropology of a Frontier Zone: Hittite-Kaska Relations in Late Bronze Age North-Central Anatolia, BASOR 339 (2005), 47-65.
  • HALLO 1964: W. W. Hallo, The Road to Emar, Journal of Cuneiform Studies Vol. 18, No. 3 (1964), 57-88. 
  • KRYSZEN 2012: A. Kryszen, Towards a Reconstruction of Hittite Geography - The Case of Šallapa, PALAMEDES 7 (2012), 5-24.
  • MAREK 2010: C. Marek, P. Frei, Geschichte Kleinasiens in der Antike, 2. durchges. Aufl., C.H. Beck (2010). 
  • MATESSI 2016: A. Matessi, The Making of Hittite Imperial Landscapes: Territoriality and Balance of Power in South-Central Anatolia during the Late Bronze Age, Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History 3(2) (2016), 117–162.
  • MATESSI 2019: A. Matessi, A. Gürel, C. Kuzucuoğlu, L. D'Alfonso, East of Konya: Settlements, routes and environment in southern Cappadocia, and the political landscape of South Central Anatolia during the Second Millennium BCE, in C. Maner (ed.), Crossroads: Konya Plain from Prehistory to Byzantine Period, Ege Yayinlari (2019), 117-146.
  • MATTHEWS 2009: R. Matthews and C. Glatz, The historical geography of north-central Anatolia in the Hittite period: texts and archaeology in concert, Anatolian Studies Vol. 59 (2009), 51-72.
  • ORESHKO 2013: R. Oreshko, Geography of the Western Fringes - Gar(a)giša/Gargiya and the Lands of the Late Bronze Age Caria, in O. Henry, K. Konuk (eds.), KARIA ARKHAIA - La Carie, des origines à la période pré-hékatomnide, Institut Français d’Études Anatoliennes Georges Dumézil - CNRS USR 3131 (2013), 139-189.
  • ÜNAL 2015: A. Ünal, A Hittite treaty tablet from Oylum Höyük in southeastern Turkey and the location of Ḫaššu(wa), Anatolian Studies Vol. 65 (2015), 19-34. 
  • ROOSEVELT 2009: C. H. Roosevelt, The Archaeology of Lydia, from Gyges to Alexander, Cambridge University Press (2014). 
  • ROOSEVELT 2017: C. H. Roosevelt, C. Luke, The Story of a Forgotten Kingdom? Survey Archaeology and the Historical Geography of Central Western Anatolia in the Second Millennium BC, European Journal of Archaeology 20 1 (2017), 120–147.
  • SCHÜRR 2010: D. Schürr, Zur Vorgeschichte Lykiens: Städtenamen in hethitischen Quellen, KLIO 92 (2010), 7-33.
  • SIEBLER 2001: M. Siebler, Troia - Mythos und Wirklichkeit, Philipp Reclam jun. Universal-Bibliothek 18130, (2001).
  • WOUDHUIZEN 2015: F. C. Woudhuizen, The Geography of the Hittite Empire and the Distribution of Luwian Hieroglyphic Seals, Klio 97.1 (2015), 7–31.
  • YENER 1989: K. Aslihan Yener, H. Özbal, E. Kaptan, A. Neci̇p Pehli̇van, M. Goodway, Kestel: An Early Bronze Age Source of Tin Ore in the Taurus Mountains, Turkey, Science 244 No. 4901 (1989), 200-203.

 

Assyria

  • BONACOSSI 2020, D. M. Bonacossi, \emph{Wo Alexander der Grosse Dareios Besiegte - Gaugamela, der Ursprung des Hellenismus}, Antike Welt 04/2020, WBG Darmstadt (2020), 63-71.
  • CANCIK-KIRSCHBAUM 2003: E. Cancik-Kirschbaum, Die Assyrer: Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Kultur, C.H. Beck (2003).
  • CANCIK-KIRSCHBAUM 2014: E. Cancik-Kirschbaum, URUŠÀ.URU, māt DAššur und die Binnenstruktur des mittelassyrischen Reiches, in: N. Ziegler, E. Cancik-Kirschbaum (Hrsg.), Entre les fleuves – II D'Aššur à Mari et au-delà, Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient 24 (2014), 291–314. 
  • LLOP 2012a: J. Llop, The Development of the Middle Assyrian Provinces, Altoriental. Forsch., Akademie Verlag, 39 (2012) 1, 87–111.
  • LLOP 2012b: J. Llop-Raduà, Did the assyrians occupy the Euphrates-elbow in the Middle Assyrian period (Late Bronze Age)?, in Broadening Horizons 3. Conference of Young Researchers Working in the Ancient Near East, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Servei de Publicacions (2012), 203-225. 
  • MIGLUS 2011: P. A. Miglus, Middle Assyrian Settlement in the South, Heidelberger Studien zum Alten Orient 14 (2011), 217–225.
  • MÜHL 2011: S. Mühl, B. S. Sulaiman, The Makħūl Dam Project, Heidelberger Studien zum Alten Orient 14 (2011), 217–225.
  • PAPPI 2012: C. Pappi, Assyrians at the Lower Zab, in G. B. Lanfranchi, D. M. Bonacossi, C.Pappi, S. Ponchia (eds.), Leggo! Studies Presented to Frederick Mario Fales on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Harrassowitz Verlag (2012), 597-611.
  • RÖLLIG 1997, Aspects of the Historical Geography of Northeastern Syria from Middle Assyrian to Neo-Assyrian Times, in S. Parpola / R.M. Whiting (Hg.), Assyria 1995, Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Helsinki (1997), 281-293.
  • WISSING 2015: A. Wissing, Die antike Stadt Urkeš - Tall Mozan, Antike Welt 02/2015, Phillip von Zabern (2015), 42-50.  

 

Babylonia

  • BEAULIEU 2018: P.-A. Beaulieu, A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75, Blackwell History of the Ancient World, John Wiley and Sons Ltd (2018).
  • BIGGS 1965: R. D. Biggs, A Letter from Kassite Nippur, Journal of Cuneiform Studies Vol. 19, No. 4 (1965), 95-102.
  • BRINKMAN 1963: J. A. Brinkman, Provincial Administration in Babylonia under the Second Dynasty of Isin, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient Vol. 6, No. 3 (1963), 233-242.
  • GASCHE 2002: H. Gasche, M. Tanret, S. W.Cole, K. Verhoeven, Fleuves du temps et de la vie. Permanence et instabilité du réseau fluviatile babylonien entre 2500 et 1500 avant notre ère, in Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales. 57ᵉ année, N. 3 (2002), 531-544.
  • GLATZ 2016: C. Glatz, J. Casana, Of highland-lowland borderlands: local societies and foreign power in the Zagros-Mesopotamian interface, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 44 Part A (2016), 127-147.
  • GLATZ 2019: C. Glatz, J. Casana, R.Bendrey, E. Baysal, D. Calderbank, F. Chelazzi, F. Del Bravo, N.Erskine, M. Marie Hald, E. Jakoby Laugier, E. Jensen, E. Perruchini, Babylonian Encounters in the Upper Diyala River Valley: Contextualizing the Results of Regional Survey and the 2016–2017 Excavations at Khani Masi, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 123, No. 3 (2019), 439-471. 
  • HEYVAERT 2008: V. M. A. Heyvaert, C. Baeteman, A Middle to Late Holocene avulsion history of the Euphrates river: a case study from Tell ed-Der, Iraq, Lower Mesopotamia, Quaternary Science Reviews 27 (2008), 2401–2410. 
  • JOTHERI 2016: J. Hamza Abdulhussein Jotheri, Holocene avulsion history of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the Mesopotamian Floodplain, Durham theses, Durham University (2016), http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/11752/
  • MÜHL 2015: S. Mühl, J. W. E. Fassbinder, Archaeological geophysics in the Shahrizor plain (Iraqi Kurdistan, Archaeologia Polona 53 (2015), 481-485.
  • PAULUS 2014: S. Paulus, Akkade in mittelbabylonischer Zeit (ca. 1500-1000 v. Chr.), Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient Band 24, PeWe-Verlag (2014), 199-206.
  • PEDERSEN 2014: O. Pedersén, Waters at Babylon, A History of Water: Waters and Urbanization: Series III, Volume 1, (2014), 107-129. 
  • POURNELLEIN 2012: J. Pournellein, Physical Geography of the Sumerian World, in H. Crawford (ed.), The Sumerian World, Routledge (2012), 13-33.
  • STEINKELLER 2001: P. Steinkeller, New Light on the Hydrology and Topography of Southern Babylonia in the Third Millennium, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, Volume 91, Issue 1 (2001), 22–84.

 

Elam/Iran, Central Asia

 

  • ALVAREZ-MON 2018: J. Álvarez-Mon, G. P. Basello, Y. Wicks (eds.), The Elamite World, Routledge World No. 16, Routledge(2018).
  • BALL 2019: W. Ball, Archaeological Gazetteer of Afghanistan: Revised Edition, Oxford University Press (2019).
  • BAUMER 2012: C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors, Volume 1, Bloombsbury Publishing (2012).
  • BOROFFKA 2009: N. Boroffka, Siedlungsgeschichte in Nordbaktrien – Bandichan zwischen Spätbronzezeit und Frühmittelalter, in S. Hansen, A. Wieczorek, M. Tellenbach (eds.), Alexander der Grosse und die Öffnung der Welt. Asiens Kulturen im Wandel, Publikationen der Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen 36, Schnell + Steiner (2009), 134-144.
  • CHEGINI 2000: N. N. Chegini, M. Momenzadeh, H. Parzinger, E. Pernicka, T. Stoellner, R. Vatandoust, G. Weisgerber, Preliminary report on archaeometallurgical investigations around the prehistoric site of Arisman near Kashan, western Central Iran, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan 32 (2000), 281-318. 
  • ENCIR: E. Yarshater (ed.) et Al., Encyclopaedia Iranicahttp://www.iranicaonline.org
  • ESKANDARI 2019: N. Eskandari, Regional patterns of Early Bronze Age urbanization in the southeastern Iran - New discoveries on the western fringe of Dasht-e Lut, in  J.-W. Meyer, E. Vila, M. Mashkour, M. Casanova, R. Vallet (eds.), The Iranian Plateau during the Bronze Age, MOM Éditions (2020), 201-216. 
  • FAHIMI 2019: H, Fahimi, The Bronze Age and the Iron Age on the Central Iranian Plateau - Two successive cultures or the appearance of a new culture?, in  J.-W. Meyer, E. Vila, M. Mashkour, M. Casanova, R. Vallet (eds.), The Iranian Plateau during the Bronze Age, MOM Éditions (2020), 335-344. 
  • GARNER 2011: J. Garner, Bronze Age tin mines in central Asia, in Archaeometallurgy in Europe III: Proceedings of the 3rd Internationale Conference Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, June 29 - July 1,2011, Der Anschnitt - Beihefte (2015).
  • ISLAM 2016: B. Shaikh Baikloo Islam, A. Chaychi Amirkhiz, H. Reza Valipour, On the Possible Correlation between the Collapse of Sialk IV and Climatological Events during the Middle–Late Holocene, Iranian Journal of Archaeological Studies 6 (2016), 45-57. 
  • KOCH 2007: H. Koch, Frauen und Schlangen: Geheimnisvolle Kultur der Elamer in Alt-Iran, Kulturgeschichte der Antiken Welt Band 114, Phillipp von Zabern (2007). 
  • NEZAFATI 2008: N. Nezafati, M. Momenzadeh, E. Pernicka, New Insights into the Ancient Mining and Metallurgical Researches in Iran, in Ü. Yalçin, H. Özbal, A. G. Paşamehmetoğlu (eds.), Ancient Mining in Turkey and the Eastern Mediterranean, Atilim University (2008), 307-328.
  • NEZAFATI 2012: N. Nezafati, E. Pernicka, Early Silver Production in Iran, Iranian Archaeology, No. 2 (2012).
  • POTTS 1999: D. T. Potts, The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State, Cambridge University Press (2004).
  • POTTS 2013: D. T. Potts, Luristan and the Central Zagros in the Bronze Age, in The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, Oxford University Press (2013), 203-216.
  • SINGH 2016: R. N. Singh, D. P. Singh, A Note on Metallurgy at Khanak: An Indus Site in Tosham Mining Area, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering Vol 10, No 9 (2016), 847-856.

  • UNESCO 1992: A. H. Dani, M. Masson (eds.), History of civilizations of Central Asia, V. 1: The Dawn of civilization, earliest times to 700 B.C., UNESCO Publishing (1992).
  • WALSTRA 2011: J. Walstra, V. M.A. Heyvaert, P. Verkinderen, Mapping Late Holocene Landscape Evolution and Human Impact – A Case Study from Lower Khuzestan (SW Iran), Developments in Earth Surface Processes Volume 15 (2011), 551-575.
  • WEEKS 2016: L. Weeks, Iran and the Bronze Age Metals Trade in the Persian Gulf, International Journal of the Society of Iranian Archaeologists Vol. 2, No. 3, Winter-Spring 2016, 13-25.

 

Arabia / Canaan

  • GIARDINO 2012: C. Giardino, The Beginning of Copper Metallurgy in Oman, in Proceedings of the Symposium THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE OF OMAN, Ministry of Heritage and Culture Sultanate of Oman (2015), 115-125.
  • GILMOUR 2012: G. Gilmour, K. A. Kitchen, Pharaoh Sety II and Egyptian Political Relations with Canaan at the End of the Late Bronze Age, Israel Exploration Journal, Vol. 62, No. 1 (2012), 1-21.
  • HOFFMEIER 2014: J. K. Hoffmeier, S. O. Moshier, A highway out of Egypt: The main road from Egypt to Canaan, in F. Förster, H. Riemer (eds.), Desert Road Archaeology in Ancient Egypt and Beyond, Heinrich-Barth-Inst. (2014), 485-511.
  • HAUSLEITNER 2013: A. Hausleitner, Tayma - eine frühe Oasensiedlung, Archäologie in Deutschland, 3/2013, 14-19.
  • HOYLAND 2001: R. G. Hoyland, Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam, Routledge Chapman & Hall (2001).
  • KUTTERER 2013: J.  Kutterer, C. Neureiter,S. Jasim, Second report on the copper smelting site HLO1 in Wādī al-Ḥilo (Sharjah, UAE), Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies Vol. 43 (2013), 185-196.
  • LIU 2015: S. Liu, Th. Rehren, E. Pernicka, A. Hausleiter, Copper processing in the oases of northwest Arabia: technology, alloys and provenance, Journal of Archaeological Science 53 (2015), 492-503.
  • LUCIANI 2016: M. Luciani, Mobility, Contacts and the Definition of Culture(s) in New Archaeological Research in Northwest Arabia, in M. Luciani (ed.) The Archaeology of North Arabia, Oases and Landscapes, Oriental and European Archaeology Volume 4, Austrian Academy of Sciences Press (2016), 21-56. 
  • MAZAR 2009: A.  Mazar, The Egyptian Garrison Town at Beth-Shean, in S.Bar, D.Kahn, JJ Shirley (eds.), Egypt, Canaan and Israel: History, Imperialism, Ideology and Literature: Proceedings of a Conference at the University of Haifa, 3-7 May 2009., Brill (2011), 155-189. 
  • NA'AMAN 1999: N. Na'aman, Four Notes on the Size of Late Bronze Age Canaan, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 313 (1999), 31-37.
  • NA'AMAN 2005: N. Na'aman, Canaan in the Second Millennium B.C.E., Eisenbaums (2005).
  • SCHIETTECATTE 2006: J. Schiettecatte, Villes et urbanisation de l’Arabie du Sud à l’époque préislamique : formation, fonctions et territorialités urbaines dans la dynamique de peuplement régionale, Histoire, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I (2006), Français.
  • SINGER 1988: I. Singer, Merneptah's Campaign to Canaan and the Egyptian Occupation of the Southern Coastal Plain of Palestine in the Ramesside Period, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 269 (1988), 1-10.
  • SOMAGLINO 2014: C. Somaglino, P. Tallet, A road to the Arabian Peninsula in the reign of Ramesses III, in F. Förster, H. Riemer (eds.), Desert Road Archaeology in Ancient Egypt and Beyond, Heinrich-Barth-Inst. (2014), 511-518.
  • SOMMER 2008: M. Sommer, Die Phönizier: Geschichte und Kultur, C.H.Beck (2008).
  • TALLET 2011: P. Tallet, G. Castel, P. Fluzin, Metallurgical Sites of South Sinai (Egypt) in the Pharaonic Era: New Discoveries, Paléorient, vol. 37.2 (2011), 79-89.
  • VOGT 1998: B. Vogt, A. Sedov, The Sabir culture and coastal Yemen during the second millennium BC - the present state of discussion, in Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies Vol. 28, Papers from the thirty-first meeting of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held in Oxford, 17-19 July 1997, Archaeopress (1998), 261-270.
  • WEEKS 2008: L. Weeks, E. Keall, V. Pashley, J. Evans, S. Stock, Lead isotope analyses of Bronze Age copper-base artefacts from al-Midamman, Yemen: Towards the identification of an indigenous metal production and exchange system in the southern Red Sea region, Archaeometry 51, 4 (2009), 576–597.
  • WILLEITNER 2013: J. Willeitner, Die Weihrauchstraße, Philipp von Zabern (2013).

 

Egypt General

  • ALTENMÜLLER 2010: H. Altenmüller, Einführung in die Hieroglyphenschrift, H. Buske (2010).
  • BARD 1999: K. A. Bard (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Routledge Chapman & Hall (1999).
  • EGGEBRECHT 1997: A. Eggebrecht (ed.), Das alte Ägypten: 3000 Jahre Geschichte und Kultur des Pharaonenreiches, C. Bertelsmann, 4. Auflage (1997).
  • HANNIG 2006: R. Hannig, Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch: (2800 - 950 v. Chr.), von Zabern (2006).
  • HANNIG 2014: R. Hannig, Großes Handwörterbuch Deutsch - Ägyptisch, von Zabern (2014).
  • HARRELL 2009: J.A. Harrell, P. Storemyr, Ancient Egyptian quarries-an illustrated overview, in N. Abu-Jaber, E. G. Bloxam, P. Degryse, T. Heldal,QuarryScapes: ancient stone quarry landscapes in the Eastern Mediterranean, Geological Survey of Norway Special Publication 12 (2009), 7–50.
  • HELCK 1974: W. Helck, Die altägyptischen Gaue, L. Reichert (1974).
  • KLEMM 2001: D. Klemm, R. Klemm, A. Murr, Gold of the Pharaohs – 6000 years of gold mining in Egypt and Nubia, African Earth Sciences 33 (2001), 643–659.
  • KLEMM 2013: D. Klemm, R. Klemm, Gold and Gold Mining in Ancient Egypt and Nubia Geoarchaeology of the Ancient Gold Mining Sites in the Egyptian and Sudanese Eastern Deserts, Natural Science in Archaeology, Springer (2013).)
  • LlOYD 2014: A. B. Lloyd, A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World, John Wiley & Sons (2014).
  • RADEMAKERS 2017: F. W. Rademakers, Th. Rehren, E. Pernicka, Copper for the Pharaoh: Identifying multiple metal sources for Ramesses' workshops from bronze and crucible remains, Journal of Archaeological Science 80 (2017), 50-73.
  • SPALINGER 2004: A. J. Spalinger, War in Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom, Wiley-Blackwell (2004).

 

Egypt and Africa Regional Studies

  • AL-AYEDI 2000: A. Rahman Al-Ayedi,Tharu-the starting point on the "Ways of Horus", Master Thesis, University of Toronto (2000).
  • BARD 2011: K. A. Bard, R. Fattovich,The Middle Kingdom Red Sea Harbor at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis, JARCE 47 (2011), 105-129.
  • BERGER 2018: F. Berger, Neue Überlegungen zur geographischen Lage von Jam, Almogaren 48-49 / 2017-2018 (Institutum Canarium), 87-124.
  • BIETAK 2011: M. Bietak, I. Forstner-Müller, The Topography of New Kingdom Avaris and Per Ramesses,  in M. Collier, S. Snape (eds.), Ramesside Studies in Honour of K.A. Kitchen, Rutherford Press (2011), 23-51.
  • BUDKA 2014: J. Budka, The New Kingdom in Nubia: New results from current excavations on Sai Island, Egitto e Vicino Oriente, Vol. 37 (2014), 55-87.
  • BUHAGIAR 2007: K. Buhagiar, Bahrija: Its Archaeological Significance, Melita Historica Vol. XIV No. 4 (2007), 357-374.
  • COOPER 2012: Julien Cooper, Reconsidering the Location of Yam, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 48 (2012), 1-21.
  • DAVOLI 2012: P. Davoli, The Archaeology of the Fayum, in C. Riggs (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt, Oxford University Press (2012).
  • EGER 2013: J. Eger, Ancient Traffic Routes in the Sudanese Western Desert - An Archaeological Remote Sensing Project, in Neubauer, Trinks, Salisbury & Einwögerer (eds.), Archaeological Prospection. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference – Vienna. May 29th - June 2nd 2013, Verl. der Österr. Akad. d. Wiss (2013), 127-128.
  • ESS 2016: The Egypt Exploration Society, DELTA SURVEY - An information centre for the archaeological sites of Lower Egypt, A British Academy Research Project, deltasurvey.ees.ac.uk/, 23.06.2016.
  • FLAUX 2017: C. Flaux, M. El-Assal, C. Shaalan, N. Marriner, C. Morhange, M. Torab, J.-Ph. Goiran, J.-Y. Empereur, Geoarchaeology of Portus Mareoticus: Ancient Alexandria's lake harbour (Nile Delta, Egypt), Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 13 (2017), 669–681.
  • GARBECHT 1992: G. Garbrecht, H. Jaritz, Neue Ergebnisse zu altägyptischen Wasserbauten im Fayum, in Antike Welt Band. 23,4 (1992), 238–254.
  • GOMAA 1991: F. Gomaà, R. Müller-Wollermann, W. Schenkel, Mittelägypten zwischen Samalut und dem Gabal Abu Sir, L. Reichert (1991).
  • HABACHI 1980: L. Habachi, The Military Posts of Ramesses II on the Coastal Road and the Western Part of the Delta, BIFAO 80 (1980), 13-30.
  • HARREL 1992: J. A. Harrel, V. M. Brown, The World's Oldest Surviving Geological Map: The 1150 B.C. Turin Papyrus from Egypt, The Journal of Geology Vol. 100 (1992), 3-18.
  • HELDAL 2009: T.Heldal1, E. G. Bloxam, P. Degryse, P. Storemyr, A. Kelany, Gypsum quarries in the northern Faiyum quarry landscape, Egypt: a geo-archaeological case study, , in N. Abu-Jaber, E. G. Bloxam, P. Degryse, T. Heldal,QuarryScapes: ancient stone quarry landscapes in the Eastern Mediterranean, Geological Survey of Norway Special Publication 12 (2009), 51–66.
  • HENDRICKX 2013: S. Hendrickx, F. Förster, M. Eyckerman, The Pharaonic potery of the Abu Ballas Trail: ‘Filling stations’ along a desert highway in southwestern Egypt, in Desert Road Archaeology in Ancient Egypt and Beyond - Africa Praehistoria 27, Heinrich-Barth-Institut (2013).
  • HOFFMEIER 2013: J. K. Hoffmeier, Reconstructing Egypt’s Eastern Frontier Defense Network in the New Kingdom (Late Bronze Age), in F. Jesse, C. Vogel (eds), The Power of Walls - Fortifications in Ancient Northeastern Africa. Proceedings of the International Workshop held at the University of Cologne 4th-7th August 2011, Colloquium Africanum 5 (2013), 163-194.
  • KENRICK 2013: P. Kenrick, Cyrenaica (Libya Archaeological Guides), Silphium Press (2013).
  • KRÖPELIN 2007: S. Kröpelin, R. Kuper (2007), More Corridors to Africa ,in Cahiers de Recherches de l'Institut de Papyrologie et d'Égyptologie de Lille 26 (2007), 219-229.
  • LOEBEN 2011: C. E. Loeben, Ein Geschenk der Wüste - Oasen der Westwüste ägyptens und ihre archäologischen Schätze, Antike Welt 02/2011, Phillip von Zabern (2011), 8-14. 
  • MOSHIER 2008: S. O. Moshier, A. El-Kalani, Late Bronze Age Paleogeography along the Ancient Ways of Horus in Northwest Sinai, Egypt, Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4 (2008), 450–473.
  • MOSHIER 2009: S. O. Moshier, J. K. Hoffmeier, Which Way Out of Egypt? Physical Geography Related to the Exodus Itinerary, in T. E. Levy, T. Schneider, W. H.C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences), Springer (2015), 101-108.
  • MURRAY 1939: G. W. Murray, The Road to Chephren's Quarries The Geographical Journal Vol. 94, No. 2 (1939), 97-111.
  • RAUE 2018: D. Raue, Ein Tempel unter Kairo - Ägyptisch-deutsche Forschungen im Sonnentempel von Matariya/Heliopolis, Antike Welt 05/2018, Phillip von Zabern (2018), 56-65.
  • SHEA 1977: W. H. Shea, A Date for the Recently Discovered Eastern Canal of Egypt, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 226 (1977), 31-38.
  • SNAPE 2014: S. Snape, A stroll along the corniche? Coastal routes between the Nile Delta and Cyrenaica in the Late Bronze Age, in F. Förster, H. Riemer (eds.), Desert Road Archaeology in Ancient Egypt and Beyond, Heinrich-Barth-Inst. (2014), 439-454.
  • SNEH 1975: A. Sneh, T. Weissbrod, I. Perath, Evidence for an Ancient Egyptian Frontier Canal, American Scientist, Vol. 63, No. 5 (1975), 542-548.
  • STEINER 2008: H. Steiner, Ägyptische Festungen und Stadtgründungen in Nubien von der Prädynastischen Zeit bis zum Ende des Neuen Reiches, Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien (2008).
  • TALLET 2012: P. Tallet, Ayn Sukhna and Wadi el-Jarf: Two newly discovered pharaonic harbours on the Suez Gulf, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 18 (2012): 147–68.
  • TÖRÖK 1999: L. Török, The Kingdom of Kush - Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization, Handbuch der Orientalistik Abt.2 Bd. 31 (1999).
  • WADA 2007: K. Wada, Provincial Society and Cemetery Organization in the New Kingdom, Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Bd. 36 (2007), 347-389.
  • WILLEITNER 2003: J. Willeitner, Die ägyptischen Oasen: Städte, Tempel und Gräber in der Libyschen Wüste, von Zabern (2003).

 

Cyprus and Europe

 

  • ARMSTRONG 2003: K. M. Armstrong, Settlement Hierarchy and the Location of Alashiya on Cyprus, MA Thesis, University of Cincinnati, (2000).
  • ASTIUR 1966: Michael C. Astour, Aegean Place-Names in an Egyptian Inscription, American Journal of Archaeology. Bd. 70 (1966), 313-317.
  • BENNET 2011: J. Bennet, The Geography of the Mycenaean Kingdoms, in Y. Duhoux, A. Morpurgo Davies (Hrsg.), A Companion to Linear B: Mycenaean Greek Texts and their World, Bd. 2, Peeters (2011), 137-168.
  • BRONEER 1966: O. Broneer, Cyclopean Wall on the Isthmus of Corinth and Its Bearing on Late Bronze Age Chronology, Hesperia 35 (1966).
  • CASTLEDEN 2005: R. Castleden, Mycenaeans, Routledge (2005).
  • CHANIOTIS 2014: A. Chaniotis, Das antike Kreta, C.H.Beck, 2. Auflage (2014).
  • COSMOPOULOS 2012: M. B. Cosmopoulos, Die Geburt der mykensichen Staaten - Funde in Iklaina erhellen die frühmykenische Teit, Antike Welt 04/2012, Phillip von Zabern (2012), 40-46.
  • EDER 2009: B. Eder, The Northern Frontier of the Mycenaean World, in A. Mazarakis Ainian (Hrsg.), 2° Αρχαιολογικό Έργο Θεσσαλίας και Στερεάς Ελλάδας, /Πρακτικά επιστημονικής συνάντησης, Βόλος 16.-19.3.2006, Volos (2009), 113-131.
  • EDER 2011: B. Eder, Zur historischen Geographie Triphyliens in mykenischer Zeit, in F. Blakolmer, G. Nightingale, C. Reinholdt, J. Weilhartner (Hrsg.), Österreichische Forschungen zur Ägäischen Bronzezeit 2009, Akten der Tagung vom 6. bis 7. März 2009 am Fachbereich Altertumswissenschaften der Universität Salzburg, Wien (2011), 105-117.
  • GALE 2007: N.H. Gale, M. Kayafa, Z.A. Stos-Gale, Further evidence for Bronze Age production of copper from ores in the Lavrion ore district, Attica, Greece, in Archaeometallurgy in Europe 2007. Selected Papers of the 2nd International Conference 17.-21. June 2007 in Aquileia, Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia (2007), 158-176. 
  • GOREN 2003: Y. Goren, S. Bunimovitz, I. Finkelstein, N. Na'Aman, The Location of Alashiya: New Evidence from Petrographic Investigation of Alashiyan Tablets from El-Amarna and Ugarit, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 107, No. 2 (2003), 233-255.
  • GUTTANDIN 2011: T. Guttandin, D. Panagiotopoulos, H. Pflug, G. Plath, Inseln der Winde. Die maritime Kultur der bronzezeitlichen Ägäis, Institut für Klassische Archäologie Universität Heidelberg (2011).
  • HELCK 1995: W. Helck, R. Drenkhahn, Die Beziehungen Ägyptens und Vorderasiens zur Ägäis bis ins 7. Jahrhundert v. Chr., Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2. Auflage (1995).
  • JOHNSTON 2015: P. A. Johnston, Pottery Production at the Phoenician Colony of El Castillo De Doña Blanca (El Puerto De Santa María, Spain) C. 750-550 BCE, Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences (2015). 
  • JUNG 2015: R. Jung, Die Beziehung zwischen dem spätmykenischen Griechenland und Italien, Antike Welt 04/2015, Phillip von Zabern (2015), 23-27.  
  • KELDER 2013: J. Kelder, Ahhiyawa and the World of the Great Kings. A Re-evaluation of Mycenaean Political Structures, TALANTA XLIV (2012), 41-52. 
  • SANADER 2007: M. Sanader, Kroatien in der Antike, Philipp von Zabern (2007).
  • SCHOFIELD 2007: L. Schofield, The Mycenaeans, Oxford Univ Pr (2007).
  • SCHOLLMEYER 2009: P. Schollmeyer, Das antike Zypern: Aphrodites Insel zwischen Orient und Okzident, von Zabern (2009).
  • SIEBENMORGEN 2000: H. Siebenmorgen (Hrsg.), Im Labyrinth des Minos. Kreta – die erste europäische Hochkultur, Biering & Brinkmann (2000).
  • SIMPSON 2009: R. H. Simpson, The Mycenaean settlements in the Sparta plain and the ancient traditions, SMEA 51 (2009), 315-335.
  • SZENTMIKLOSI 2006: A. Szentmiklosi, The relations of the Cruceni-Belegiš Culture with the Žuto Brdo-Gârla-Mare Culture, Analele Banatului, Serie Nouă, 14,1 (2006), 229-270. 
  • VASILOGAMVROU: A. Vasilogamvrou, The Mycenaean site of Ayios Vasileios at Xerocambi, Laconia, Project 2010-2014.