Dawn of the Classical World

A second huge wall map made for Sardis Verlag, depicting the Mediterranean and the Persian Empire about the year 500 BCE. Unsurpassed in the number of covered cultures and total area. The map was also sold by Sardis Verlag as The Achaemenid Empire and the West and Giant Wall Map of the Persian Empire.

Persian Empire map
The Persian Empire and the West

Detailed wall map of the ancient world at the transition between the archaic and classical periods of Mediterranean civilization. The map encompasses the entire territory between the Pillars of Hercules and the Indus valley, between the Hallstatt era Celts in what is now southern Germany and eastern France and the legendary kingdom of Saba in southern Arabia. This includes the Achaemenid Persian Empire at its greatest extend during the reign of Dareios I., 522 – 486 BCE.  

Features:

  • The Ecumene, the world known for the ancient Greeks at the turn of the 6th to 5th century BCE
  • All great nations and cultures of their period,
  • The colonies of the Greeks and Phoenicans,
  • All countries of the Persian Empire with their respective capitals,
  • The territories of Herodot's 20 satrapies,
  • More than 800 settlements and sanctuaries,
  • More than 200 peoples and regions,
  • The Persian royal road network,
  • Caravan and trade routes,
  • Major sea routes,
  • Modified geodata to reflect the ancient topography,

  • Detailed ancillary map for southern Etruria and old Latium during the first years of the Roman Republic,
  • Legend in English and German,
  • DIN A0 (118,9 x 84,1 cm),
  • Scale: main map 1:5.000.000, ancillary map 1:900.000.

HD prints of this map can be purchased from my online store.  

Download
Booklet for the map "Dawn of the Classical World"
Original English booklet of Sardis Verlag for my map "Dawn of the Classical World", includes a list of Persian administrative units with original (Persian) names and translations.
Booklet_CW500_eng.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 134.6 KB

Commentary

 

The main map is in 1:5 million scale. An Albers equal-area conic projection was chosen to deal with the large east to west extension of the our area of interest, which spans from the pillars of Hercules and the Atlantic sea all the way to the Indus river. The reference meridian is 12° East, the standard parallels are 20° and 45° North. Despite these efforts it became necessary to add two inlay maps for the western Mediterranean.
Just as for the Roman Empire map the background is composed from landclass and bathymetry data from Natural Earth, with a shaded relief calculated from the 1 km resolution SRTM30 data set provided by the U.S. Geological Survey. At some places the coastline has changed significantly since ancient times. There, the geodata was accordingly modified, also some relevant rivers have been added or adopted.

While the previously released Roman Empire map depicted a fixed point in time, I followed a broader approach here. It was my intention to make the map represent an entire era, while simultaneously having to cope with less precise and plentiful source material. As an orientation, I used the long reign of Darius I. between 522 and 486 BCE, when his Achaemenid Empire had reached its greatest extent.

Names: The multitude of peoples and cultures that greatly contribute to this epochs fascination can also be a bane for the modern cartographer who wishes to make a consistently labeled and easily understandable map. Int the Roman Empire a unified Koine Greek was the dominant language in the east and Latin in the west, which was also used for official purposes the entire empire. In the early 5th century BCE however, no language had any comparable significance in the displayed area. The Greek world was divided into various partly quite different dialects. Thus the name of the nymph and city of Kyrene becomes Kurana in its native Doric. Even the Achaemenid Empire had no single official language. The bureaucracy mainly used Elamite, but also old Persian, the Royal inscriptions were at least recorded trilingually in Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian, add to this a multitude of local languages and Aramaic especially for communication.
Additionally the names of many settlements are only recorded by much later authors, or in earlier sources as the Assyrian annals. Even for modern names coming from Arabic or Persian there is now common transliteration into our Latin script.
All those points mean that the reader will find names from many different languages to be used on our map. I attempted to make it as easily comprehensible as possible, thus more common form of names in Greek or Latin are often preferred to native ones. In some cases both versions are given. For the great Etruscan metropolises the local name is used on the main map, while the Latium Vetus inlay map is kept completely with Latin labels.

Cultures: I used different colors to differentiate the settlements of some of most important cultures on the map. The purpose was to make that widely distributed Greek and Phoenican colonies easily recognizable. However in many cases such a simple system can not able to display the complex realities of many cities in cultural border zones. For example many Carian, Lycian or Pamhylian cities of this time already possessed very strong Greek elements while still keeping their indigenous traditions and languages alive.

Quality of Sources: Compared to its at least equally important central Asiatic parts the western half of the Achaemenid empire is much better attested, both through ancient (Greek) sources and more intense archaeological research in this parts of the world. Only with the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE full accounts that allow us to get a clear picture of the eastern satrapies at one point in time become available. Data quality is also very uneven for their capitals. For Dahan-i Ḡhulāmān or Daskyleion we have undoubted archaeological or literal evidence, while for Arachosia just a single Elamite tablets from the alter town walls of Kandahar hints at its importance in the Achaemenid era. For Damascus a note from the geographer Strabo (Book 16.2.20), writing during the age of Augustus, makes us to assume that the city served once as the capital of Ebir-Nari.

Royal Roads: The Persian Royal Roads, the routes served by the royal postal service (Pirradaziš), are subdivided into two categories, that are either to some degree backed by evidence are have to be assumed to link some administrative center to the capital. Generally even for the most of the former routes the available evidence, such as the Persepolis tablets, allows us only to firmly reconstruct their origin and destination. The exact path however is mostly just speculative.  

Satrapies: During the early expansive phase of the Persian Empire annexed states were directly incorporated and preserved as primary administrative units, including their internal system of governance.
The grand combined satrapy of Athura and Ebir-Nari with its capital Babylon that still existed during Darius reign essentially was the former Babylonian Empire minus its Arabian territories who had been quasi independent allies during that time. As the Empire grew older the large satrapies were further divided into smaller units.
The map shows two sets of provinces for the Achaemenid Empire. The first one is Herodotus classical list of 20 satrapies (Hist. 3.89) whose creation was attributed by him to Darius. Their numbers on the map are directly taken from Herodotus. The accuracy and general credibility is quite often doubted by modern scholars, but since this division is often quoted and discussed I considered it essential.
The second, more pronounced, set is based on Darius dahyâva lists from his Royal Inscriptions. Their exact composition is not uniform, the Greeks, for example, are sometimes subdivided into various categories, like those who dwell on the islands/ on the sea, or Greeks who wore sunhats (Macedonians). Often the dahyâva lists are called lists of satrapies in literature, but it should be kept in mind that their purpose was to transmit an idealistic image of the Empire for propaganda purposes, not administrative details to later generations.

Borders: Because of the scarcity of sources some scholars question the usefulness of the very attempt to draw boundaries of Achaemenid administrative units. Also the inherent flexibility of the empires organization should be taken into account, overlapping spheres of influence of persons and levels of bureaucracy, not identical with fixed territorial units.
The same can be said about the outer borders of Achaemenid Persia, which reflect the limits of the kings direct influence. Especially for the numerous tribes of horse or camel herding nomads along the fringes of settled land the perception about their formal incorporation into the Achaemenid realm, the offered gifts and demonstrations of loyalty, could be quite differently perceived or portrayed from both sides.
Despite these points in some cases borders can be drawn with some confidence. The limits of Ebir-Nari are quite well defined by the Euphrates river, the mountains to Cilicia or archaeological research about the most likely extension of Qedarite rule in the south. To help the reader to get a quick and easily interpretable overview of the Achaemenid empire and its countries I added the boundaries described above. All borders are intentionally kept in a diffusive style. One should always be aware that they not have the same absoluteness as borders in Roman Empire or even modern states.

 

 

Red Sea Region

 

So far not much is known about the supposed polity D’MT, variously vocalized as Di‘amat, Da‘amat or Damot, which is attested only by a small number of inscriptions. Its chronology, politics and relationship with the contemporary Sabaean Empire remain obscure. Even if D’MT was indeed the name of a kingdom or just for the indigenous population is still a matter of debate. The local culture was heavily influenced by southern Arabia on all fields and evidently a component of native Sabaeans was present in the country. But nevertheless distinct African elements remained and the large majority of the population remained of African descent.

 

Etruria et Latium Vetus

 

Due to the later dominance of Rome even this early era of Roman history is well covered by ancient sources. However these accounts were all composed several centuries after the described events. The early historians of the Rome and their Greek counterparts tried to reconstruct a coherent narrative of Rome's first centuries out of the evidence still available to them. For the modern historians, which have much less material to work with, it has become barely possible in many ways to judge the accuracy of their ancient predecessors.
Archaeology too can only partially help to unravel the first centuries of the Roman state. Excavations did show that archaic Rome was a wealthy city state which could effort to construct numerous monumental public buildings. Its limits however are revealed if we look for the boundaries of Rome's power and her internal organization.

foundations  Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus rome
The late 6th century BCE foundations of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, today part of the Capitoline Museums (Photo: Author).

An important document to answer this question is the first treaty between Rome and Carthage, which was only passed to us in Greek translation by Polybios (Book 3.22), a historian writing in the mid 2nd century BCE. Polybios dates the treaty to the first years of the Republic, for many a doubtful date. A crucial argument for the authenticity of this document is Polybios remark that the archaic Latin could barely be understood by contemporary Romans, which fits well into what we know about early Latin and its development in the first centuries of the Republic Latin from texts and inscriptions, such as the stele from the Lapis Niger or parts of the Law of the Twelve Tables which kept their original wording.

Lapis Niger, Volcanal

Stele from the Lapis Niger, featuring one of the oldest known Latin inscriptions,

Museo Nazionale Romano - Terme di diocleziano (Photo: Author).

The Pontine Plain: To the south east Latium is bordering the extended marshes of the Pontine Plain, which was also called Pomptinae Paludes (Pontine marshes, or swamps) by Roman authors since the late Republic. They formed in place of an ancient lagoon, filled with sediments and plagued by a poor drainage towards the sea due to the dune belt between Terracina and Circeii. Only in the 1930s the marshes could be finally reclaimed and converted to farm land.    

Even in quite recent literature authors often assume that the 6th and 5th century BCE Pontine Plain was a mostly drained and highly productive center of settlement. Such as Linoli (Linoli 2009): „During the seventh and sixth centuries BCE, the Latins and Volscians founded numerous settlements in the area, consequently managing to control the waters (even partially), but with Roman occupation, the area declined. The Volsci were the first to undertake drainage works in the Pontine areas they inhabited, and to exploit the fertile lands for farming purposes... At that time therefore, the marshes – thanks to the works carried out by the Volsci – must have been limited to localised areas lying lower than sea level“.

It is mandatory for this hypothesis that the Volsci, a people who just begun to emigrate from the interior to the coastal regions in the late 6th century, were already masters in the art of drainage.   

However, in recent years new archaeological field work  (Attema 2014), (de Haas 2011) has shown that this case has to be rethought. According to their finds the core parts of the region at this time were an uninhabited marshland, used only seasonally by transhumance herdsmen. During the 5th century, when all of Latium was plagued by crises and wars the existing settlements declined. 

Only with the construction of the Via Appia and the parallel Decennovium canal an era of colonization and reclamation begun. Agricultural use of the Pontine Plain peaked during the middle Republic, the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. Only in the centuries before and after the turn of the eras many settlements were slowly abandoned and the marshes mentioned by contemporary sources returned.  

Bibliography

The literature consulted by me when making the Dawn of the Classical World map. For better readability, the list of sources is separated by topic into sections. We begin with a list of more general topics, then continue with three geographical subdivisions: the entire Achaemenid Empire, the Mediterranean Basin and Europe and finally Southern Arabia and Interior of Africa.

Primary Sources

  • Herodotus (ca. 484 - 425 BCE): Histories
  • Xenophon (ca. 430 - 354 BCE): Anabasis
  • Arrian (ca. 85–90 - 145/146 CE): The Anabasis of Alexander, Indica

 

General

  • BOARDMAN 1982: J. Boardman, N.G.L. Hammond (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History 2nd edition Volume 3.3. The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C., Seventh Printing, Cambridge University Press (2006).
  • BOARDMAN 1988: J. Boardman, N.G.L. Hammond, D.M.Lewis, M. Ostwald (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History 2nd edition Volume 4. Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean C. 525 to 479 B.C., Sixth Printing, Cambridge University Press (2006).
  • CASSON 1995: L. Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the ancient world, Johns Hopkins University Press (1995).
  • ENCIR: E. Yarshater (ed.) et Al., Encyclopaedia Iranica, iranicaonline.org.
  • PLEIADES: B. Turner, T. Elliott et. Al., Pleiades - A community-built gazetteer and graph of ancient places, pleiades.stoa.org
  • STILLWELL 1976: R. Stillwell, W. L. MacDonald, L. William, M. H. McAlister, The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, N.J. Princeton University Press (1976).
  • TALBERT 2000: R.J.A. Talbert (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press (2000).
  • TAVO, Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag (1975-1993).
  • WITTKE 2007: Anne-Maria Wittke, Eckart Olshausen, Richard Szydlak, Der neue Pauly. Historischer Atlas der antiken Welt, Metzler (2007).

 

Geodata

  • Shaded relief calculated from SRTM30 dataset. Source: U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Geological Survey, usgs.gov.
  • Original coastlines, bathymetry and landclass: naturalearthdata.com

 

Achaemenid Empire

  • AALI 2012: A. Aali, A. Abar, N. Boenke, M. Pollard, F. Rühli, T. Stöllner, Ancient salt mining and salt men: the interdisciplinary Chehrabad Douzlakh project in north-western Iran, Antiquity Volume 86 Issue 333 (2012).
  • AINSLIE 2008: R. Ainslie, S. Usher-Wilson, M. Ershadi, Gorgan Wall IRAN - Qaleh Kharabeh, Tokhmagh Tappeh, Dasht Qualeh, Ghelich Ghoynech - Geophysical Surveys using Magnetometery, Abingdon Archaeological Geophysics, archaeologicalgeophysics.co.uk, (2008).
  • ANDERSON 2010: B. Anderson, Achaemenid Arabia: A Landscape-Oriented Model of Cultural Interaction, in J. Curtis, St.J. Simpson (eds.), The World of Achaemenid Persia: History, Art and Society in Iran and the Ancient Near East, I. B. Tauris (2010), 445-456.
  • BRIANT 2002: P. Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander A History of the Persian Empire, Eisenbrauns (2002).
  • BRYCE 2009: T. Bryce, The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire, Routledge (2009).
  • BURNEY 1971: C. Burney, D. Marshall Lang, The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, (1971).
  • COLBURN 2013: H. P. Colburn, Connectivity and Communication in the Achaemenid Empire, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 56 (2013), 29-52.
  • DYSON 1963: R.H. Dyson Jr., Archaeological scrap. Glimpses of history at Ziwiye, Expedition 5.3 (1963), 32-37.
  • EID 2006: V. Eid, Im Land des Ararat: Völker und Kulturen im Osten Anatoliens, Theiss (2006).
  • FRIED 2010: L.S. Fried, Because of the Dread Upon Them, in J. Curtis, St.J. Simpson (eds.), The World of Achaemenid Persia: History, Art and Society in Iran and the Ancient Near East, I. B. Tauris (2010), 457-470.
  • GAWLIKOWSKI 1996: M. Gawlikowski, Thapsacus and Zeugma the Crossing of the Euphrates in Antiquity, Iraq Vol. 58 (1996), 123-133.
  • GENITO 2003: B. Genito et al., Preliminary Notes on the Archaeological Topography in the Bukhara Oasis Project, in S. pagani (ed.), TITALO-UZBEK SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION IN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ISLAMIC STUDIES AN OVERVIEW, Rome (2003).
  • GENITO 2014: B. Genito, A. Gricina, The Achaemenid Period in the Samarkand area (Sogdiana), Newsletter Archeologia (CISA), numero 0, (2014), 122-141.
  • GHORBANI 2013: M. Ghorbani, The Economic Geology of Iran: Mineral Deposits and Natural Resources, Chapter 3, Springer (2013).
  • HAUSLEITNER 2013: A. Hausleitner, Tayma - eine frühe Oasensiedlung, Archäologie in Deutschland, 3/2013, 14-19.
  • JOHNSON 2010: P.A. Johnson, Landscapes of Achaemenid Paphlagonia, Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania (2010).
  • KHATCHADOURIAN 2012: L. Khatchadourian, The Achaemenid Provinces in Archaeological Perspective, in D.T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Blackwell Publishing (2012).
  • KUHRT 2009: A. Kuhrt, The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period, Routledge (2009).
  • LIVIUS: J. Lendering, livius.org/persia, (1996-2015).
  • MAGEE 2005: P. Magee, C. A. Petrie, R. Knox, F. Khan, K. Thomas, The Achaemenid Empire in South Asia and Recent Excavations in Akra in Northwest Pakistan, American Journal of Archaeology 109 (2005), 711-741.
  • MAGEE 2010: P. Magee, C. A. Petrie, West of the Indus—East of the Empire: The Archaeology of the Pre-Achaemenid and Achaemenid Periods in Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan, in J. Curtis, St.J. Simpson (eds.), The World of Achaemenid Persia: History, Art and Society in Iran and the Ancient Near East, I. B. Tauris (2010), 503-522.
  • MUÑOZ 2013: J. V. Muñoz, Las estaciones reales durante el periodo Aqueménida/The Royal Stations in the Achaemenid Period, LVCENTVM XXXII (2013), 185-203.
  • NEGUS CLEARY 2007: M. Negus Cleary, The Ancient Oasis Landscape of Chorasmia: The role of the kala in Central Asia settlement patterns., in L. Popova, C. Hartley, A. T. Smith (eds.), Social Orders and Social Landscapes: Proceedings of the 2005 University of Chicago Conference on Eurasian Archaeology, Cambridge Scholars Press (2007), 334-358.
  • NEZAFATI 2012: N. Nezafati, E. Pernicka, Early Silver Production in Iran, Iranian Archaeology, No. 2 (2012).
  • PETRIE 2007: C. A. Petrie, P. Magee, Histories, Epigraphy and Authority: Achaemenid and Indigenous Control in Pakistan in the 1st millennium BC, Gandharan Studies, Vol. 1 (2007), 3-22.
  • PETRIE 2012: C. A. Petrie, P. Magee, The Achaemenid Expansion to the Indus and Alexander’s Invasion of North-West South Asia, Iranian Journal of Archaeological Studies Volume 2, Issue 1 (2012), 1-25.
  • POTTS 2010: D. T. Potts, Achaemenid Interests in the Persian Gulf, in J. Curtis, St.J. Simpson (eds.), The World of Achaemenid Persia: History, Art and Society in Iran and the Ancient Near East, I. B. Tauris (2010), 523-534.
  • RISTVET 2009: L. Ristvet, H. Gopnik, V. Baxsaliev, S. Ashurov, 2008 Excavations at Oglanqala, Azerbaijan, Azerbaycan Arxeologiyasi (2009), 189–195.
  • SCHÖRNER 2000: H. Schörner, Künstliche Schiffahrtskanäle in der Antike - Der sogenannte antike Suez-Kanal, Skyllis 3.1 (2000), 28 – 43.
  • SEIBERT 2002: J. Seibert, Unterwegs auf den Straßen Persiens zur Zeit der Achämeniden, Iranistik 1 (2002), 7–40.
  • SOMMER 2008: M. Sommer, Die Phönizier: Geschichte und Kultur, C.H.Beck (2008).
  • WATERS 2014: M. Waters, Ancient Persia: A Concise History Of The Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 BCE, Cambridge University Press (2014).

 

Mediterranean Basin and Europe

  • ABELS 2010: B.-U. Abels, Die Ehrenbürg bei Forchheim. Die frühlatenezeitliche Zentralsiedlung Nordostbayerns, in D. Krausse, D. Beilharz (eds.), "Fürstensitze" und Zentralorte der frühen Kelten Abschlusskolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1171 in Stuttgart, Teil 1, Theiss (2010), 101-128.
  • ATTEMA 2014: P. Attema, T. de Haas, M. Termeer, Early colonization in the Pontine region (Central Italy), in: T.D. Stek & J. Pelgrom (eds), Roman Republican Colonization - New Perspectives from Archeaology and Ancient History, Papers of the Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome, vol. 62 (2014), 211-232.
  • BAKKUM 2009: G.C.L.M. Bakkum, The Latin dialect of the Ager Faliscus: 150 years of scholarship, Amsterdam University Press (2009).
  • BATLRUSCH 2003: E. Baltrusch, Sparta: Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Kultur C.H.Beck, 2.überarbeitete Auflage (2003).
  • BERNHARD 2010: H. Bernhard, T. Kreckel, G. Lenz-Bernhard, J. Preu, Das frühkeltische Machtzentrum von Bad Dürkheim, in D. Krausse, D. Beilharz (eds.), "Fürstensitze" und Zentralorte der frühen Kelten Abschlusskolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1171 in Stuttgart, Teil 1, Theiss (2010), 319-364.
  • BORBEIN 1995: A.H. Borbein (ed.), Das alte Griechenland. Kunst und Geschichte der Hellenen, Bertelsmann (1995).
  • BORHY 2014: L. Borhy, Die Römer in Ungarn, Phillip von Zabern (2014).
  • BRAUN 2004: T. Braun, Hecataeus' knowledge of the western Mediterranean, in Greek Identity in the Western Mediterranean: Papers in Honour of Brian Shefton, Brill (2004).
  • BUBENHEIMER 2014: F. Bubenheimer-Erhart, Die Etrusker, Phillip von Zabern (2014).
  • CAMPOREALE 2003: G. Camporeale, Die Etrusker. Geschichte und Kultur, Artemis \& Winkler (2003).
  • CHYTRACEK 2010: M. Chytracek, A. Danielisova, M. Trefny, M. Slabina, Zentralisierungsprozesse und Siedlungsdynamik in Böhmen (8.-4.Jh. v. Chr.), in D. Krausse, D. Beilharz (eds.), "Fürstensitze" und Zentralorte der frühen Kelten Abschlusskolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1171 in Stuttgart, Teil 2, Theiss (2010), 155-174.
  • CORNELL 1995: T. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (C. 1000-264 BC), Routledge History of the Ancient World (1995).
  • DE HAAS 2011: T. de Haas, Fields, farms and colonists. Intensive field survey and early Roman colonization in the Pontine region, central Italy, Barkhuis as Groningen Archaeological Studies vol. 15 (2011).
  • DEMANDT 2005: A. Demandt, Die Kelten, C.H.Beck, 5. Auflage (2005).
  • FISCHER 2012: J. Fischer, Prähistorischer und antiker Bergbau im Bundesland Salzburg, in E. Olshausen, V. Sauer (eds.) Die Schätze der Erde - Natürliche Ressourcen in der antiken Welt. Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Historischen Geographie des altertums 10, 2008, Stuttgart (2012), 127-135.
  • FORNASIER 2002: J. Fornasier Hrsg., Das Bosporanische Reich. Der Nordosten des Schwarzen Meeres in der Antike, Philipp von Zabern (2002).
  • GAJUKEVIC 1971: V. F. Gajdukevic, Das Bosporanische Reich, 2. erweiterte Auflage, Akademie-Verlag (1971).
  • GARCIA 2010: D. Garcia, Zwischen Mittelmeer und Keltike. Urbanisierungsprozesse in Südgallien während der Eisenzeit, in D. Krausse, D. Beilharz (eds.), "Fürstensitze" und Zentralorte der frühen Kelten Abschlusskolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1171 in Stuttgart, Teil 2, Theiss (2010), 51-60.
  • HEMPHILL 1970: P. Hemphill, An Archaeological Survey of Southern Etruria, Expedition vol. 12.2 (1970), 31-39.
  • HOYOS 2010: D. Hoyos, The Carthaginians (Peoples of the Ancient World), Routledge (2010).
  • HUSS 2000: W. Huß, Karthago, C.H.Beck, 2. durchgesehene Auflage (2000).
  • JONES 1980: G. D. B. Jones, The Roman Mines at Riotinto, Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 70 (1980), 146-165.
  • KENRICK 2013: P. Kenrick, Cyrenaica (Libya Archaeological Guides), Silphium Press (2013).
  • KRAUSE 2010: D. Krausse, D. Beilharz (eds.), "Fürstensitze" und Zentralorte der frühen Kelten Abschlusskolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1171 in Stuttgart, 12.-15. Oktober 2009, Teil 1 und 2, Theiss (2010)
  • KUCKENBURG 2010: M. Kuckenburg, Das Zeitalter der Keltenfürsten: Eine europäische Hochkultur, Klett-Cotta (2010).
  • MORENO 2008: A. Moreno, HIERON - The Ancient Sanctuary at the Mouth of the Black Sea, Hesperia 77 (2OO8), 655-709.
  • MARZOLI 2010: D. Marzoli, A. El Khayari, Vorbericht Mogador (Marokko) 2008, Madrider Mitteilungen, DAI Madrid (2010).
  • NOVICENKOVA 2008: N. G. Novicenkova, Mountainous Crimea: A Frontier Zone of Ancient Civilization, in Black Sea Studies 8, Aarhus University Press (2008), 287-302.
  • PARZINGER 2009: H. Parzinger, Die Skythen, C.H.Beck, 3. überarbeitete Auflage (2009).
  • PRAYON 2003: F. Prayon, Die Etrusker: Geschichte - Religion - Kunst, C.H.Beck, 3. durchgesehene Auflage (2003).
  • SANADER 2007: M. Sanader, Kroatien in der Antike, Philipp von Zabern (2007).
  • SCHLOTZHAUER 2014: U. Schlotzhauer, Taman-Halbinsel – Griechische Kolonisation im Schwarzmeerraum, eDAI-F 2014-3 (2014), dainst.org/projekt/-/project-display/24539.
  • Schmid 2015: S.G. Schmid, Der wiederentdeckte Berg: Neue Forschungen am Rocher des Aures in Südfrankreich, Antike Welt 03/2015, Phillip von Zabern (2015), 67-75.
  • STEINGRAEBER 2012: S. Steingräber, Tarquinia: Stadt und Umland von den Etruskern bis in die Neuzeit, Phillip von Zabern (2012).

 

Southern Arabia and Interior Africa

  • BARNARD 2005: H. Barnard, Sire, il n'y a pas de Blemmyes. A Re-Evaluation of Historical and Archaeological Data, in J.C.M. Starkey (ed.), People of the Red Sea : proceedings of Red Sea Project II, held in the British Museum, October 2004, Society for Arabian Studies Monographs number 3. BAR International Series 1395, Archaeopress (2005), 23-40.
  • BRETON 1999: J. F. Breton, Arabia Felix from the time of the Queen of Sheba: eighth century B.C. to first century A.D., University of Notre Dame Press (1999).
  • BREYER 2012: F. Breyer, Das Königreich Aksum. Geschichte und Archäologie Abessiniens in der Spätantike, Philipp von Zabern (2012).
  • EIGNER 2009: D. Eigner, F. Jesse, Im Westen viel Neues - Die Grabungen 2008/09 in der Festung Gala Abu Ahmed, Der Antike Sudan Bd. 20. (2009), 141-158.
  • EGER 2013: J. Eger, Ancient Traffic Routes in the Sudanese Western Desert - An Archaeological Remote Sensing Project, in Neubauer, Trinks, Salisbury & Einwögerer (eds.), Archaeological Prospection. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference – Vienna. May 29th - June 2nd 2013, Verl. der Österr. Akad. d. Wiss (2013), 127-128.
  • DRZEWIECKI 2013: M. Drzewiecki, Fortress Commandants of the kingdom of Kush, Egyptian Archaeology 43 (2013)
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